e-ISSN 2355-6641       print ISSN 1978-1989

The Effect of Perceived Product Quality, Brand Personality, and Loyalty on Brand Switching Intention of Technological Products

Font Size:  Small  Medium  Large

The Effect of Perceived Product Quality, Brand Personality, and Loyalty on Brand Switching Intention of Technological Products

Lidya Nur Hanifati, Imam Salehudin



Research Aims: Laptops are essential in people's everyday lives. Since laptop utilization has been very high during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the restrictions imposed by the pandemic, many laptop manufacturers have made efforts to drive consumers to switch to their laptop brands. The main objective of this research is to examine how perceived product quality, brand personality, and loyalty affect brand switching intention.

Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected online from 216 consumers. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was employed to analyse the data.


Research Findings: The result demonstrates that perceived product quality, brand personality, and loyalty have both direct and indirect negative effects on consumers' switching intention. It is revealed that variables play a pivotal role in consumers' evaluation of laptop products and their subsequent switching intention.


Theoretical Contribution/Originality: There is currently a dearth of studies testing the impact of brand personality dimensions on consumer brand identification, perceived product quality, loyalty, and switching intention. Our findings provide more insight into switching intention as a means to achieve a competitive edge in global laptop shipments during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Managerial Implications in the South East Asian context: This study can serve as a comprehensive guideline for businesses to position their brands successfully to reduce any consumer switching intentions affecting their products. However, consumers' perspectives on brand personality with a laptop product affect their critical evaluations. Global laptop manufacturers should leverage brand personality to engender positive consumer evaluation and reduce switching intention.


Research Limitations & Implications: Other factors beyond the scope of the research, such as brand-related factors, have many different inherent attributes (e.g., specifications, functions, designs, prices, and advancements) whose influence on switching intention needs to be considered in future research. 



Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–356.

Abimbola, T., & Kocak, A. (2007). Brand, organization identity and reputation: SMEs as expressive organizations: A resource-based perspective. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 10(4), 416–430. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750710819748

Achmad, A., Fernandes, R., & Solimun, S. (2018). Don’t leave me hanging on the mobile phone: Customer satisfaction and loyalty in telecommunications. Strategic Direction, 34(5), 19–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/SD-02-2018-0027

Ahn, K., Lee, J., & Jeon, J. (2009). The effects of luxury brand-self identification on brand attachment and brand commitment: The moderating role of regulatory focus. Asia Marketing Journal, 10(4), 1–33.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

Anton, C., Camarero, C., Carrero, M., (2007). The mediating effect of satisfaction on consumers’ switching intention. Psychology and Marketing, 24(6), 511–538.

Arnett, D. B., German, S. D., & Hunt, S. D. (2003). The identity salience model of relationship marketing success: The case of nonprofit marketing. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 89–105. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.

Ashforth, B.E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.

Babakus, E., Bienstock, C. C., & Van Scotter, J. R. (2004). Linking perceived quality and customer satisfaction to store traffic and revenue growth. Decision Sciences, 35(4), 713–737.

Bacon, D. R., Sauer, P. L. and Young, M. (1995). Composite reliability in structural equations modeling. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(3), 394-406.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Dholakia, U. M. (2006). Open-source software user communities: A study of participation in Linux user groups. Management Science, 52(7), 1099-1115.

Bergami, M., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2000). Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 555-577. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466600164633

Bowen, J. T., & Chen McCain, S.-L. (2015). Transitioning loyalty programs: A commentary on “the relationship between customer loyalty and customer satisfaction.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 415–430. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-07-2014-0368

Calvo-Porral, C. (2015). Switching behavior and customer satisfaction in mobile services: Analyzing virtual and traditional operators. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 532–540.

Calvo-Porral, C., & Lévy-Mangin, J.-P. (2017). Specialty food retailing: Examining the role of products’ perceived quality. British Food Journal, 119(7), 1511–1524. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-11-2016-0567

Churchill, G., & Iacobucci, D. (2009). Marketing research: Methodological foundations. New York: Dryden Press.

Coelho do Vale, R., Verga Matos, P., & Caiado, J. (2016). The impact of private labels on consumer store loyalty: An integrative perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.10.003

Corral, L. (2012). Using software quality standards to assure the quality of the mobile software product. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Systems, Programming, and Applications: Software for Humanity, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Dekimpe, M. G., Jan-Benedict, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., & Piet, V. A. (1997). Decline and variability in brand loyalty. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5), 405–420.

Dubrovski, D. (2001). The role of customer satisfaction in achieving business excellence. Total Quality Management, 12(7), 920–925. https://doi.org/10.1080/09544120120096052

Edward, M., & Sahadev, S. (2011). Role of switching costs in the service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and customer retention linkage. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23(3), 327–345.

Espejel, J., Fandos, C., & Flavián, C. (2007). The role of intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes on consumer behaviour for traditional food products. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 17(6), 681–701. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520710835000

Fenell, Z. (2018). How technology has improved communication. https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-technology-has-improved-communication

Ferrinadewi, E. (2008). Merek dan Psikologi Konsumen Implikasi pada Strategi Pemasaran. Graha Ilmu.

Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252129

Fung, K. K., King, C., Sparks, B. A., & Wang, Y. (2013). The influence of customer brand identification on hotel brand evaluation and loyalty development. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 31–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.02.002

Gerpott, T. J., Rams, W., & Schindler, A. (2001). Customer retention, loyalty, and satisfaction in the German mobile cellular telecommunications market. Telecommunications Policy, 25(4), 249–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961(00)00097-5

Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & De Wulf, K. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2), 97–107.

Gök, O., Ersoy, P., & Börühan, G. (2019). The effect of user manual quality on customer satisfaction: The mediating effect of perceived product quality. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 28(4), 475–488. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-10-2018-2054

Gordon, R., Zainuddin, M., Magee, C., (2016). Unlocking the potential of branding in social marketing services: Utilising brand personality and brand personality appeal. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(1), 48–62.

Hair, J. F., Bush, R. P., & Ortinau, D. J. (2006). Marketing research. New York and San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Irwin

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hair, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L. & Sarstedt, M. (2017), PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: Updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107–123. DOI: 10.1504/IJMDA.2017.087624.

He, H., & Li, Y., (2011). CSR and service brand: The mediating effect of brand identification and moderating effect of service quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 100, 673–688.

He, H., Li, Y., Harris, L. (2012). Social identity perspective on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 65, 648-657.

Hidayanti, I., Yakin, N., Farida, N. (2018). A study on brand commitment and brand trust towards brand loyalty of branded laptop in Indonesia. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 12(3).

Hirschman, A.O. (1970). Exit, voice and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

ILO. (2020). An employers’ guide on working from home in response to the outbreak of Covid-19. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---act_emp/documents/publication/wcms_745024.pdf

Japutra, A., & Molinillo, S. (2019). Responsible and active brand personality: On the relationship with brand experience and key relationship constructs. Journal of Business Research, 99, 464-471.

Jung, H. S., & Yoon, H. H. (2012). Why do satisfied customers switch? Focus on the restaurant patron variety-seeking orientation and purchase decision involvement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 875–884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.10.006

Klabi, F., & Debabi, M. (2011). Brand personality and emotional attitudes: The case of mobile telephone operators. Journal of Global Marketing, 24(3), 245–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2011.592460

Konuk, F. A. (2019). The influence of perceived food quality, price fairness, perceived value and satisfaction on customers’ revisit and word-of-mouth intentions towards organic food restaurant. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 103-110.

Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D. J. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59, 955–964.

Kuenzel, S., & Vaux Halliday, S. (2008). Investigating antecedents and consequences of brand identification. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17(5), 293–304. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420810896059

Li, D., An, S., & Yang, K. (2008). Exploring Chinese consumer repurchasing intention for services: An empirical investigation. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7(6), 448–460. doi:10.1002/cb.263.

Li, X., Yen, C.-L., & Liu, T. (2020). Hotel brand personality and brand loyalty: An affective, conative and behavioral perspective. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 29(5), 550–570. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1654961

Liang, D., Ma, Z., & Qi, L. (2013). Service quality and customer switching behavior in China’s mobile phone service sector. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1161–1167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.03.012

Lin, M., & Lee, B. Y. (2012). The influence of website environment on brand loyalty: Brand trust and brand affect as mediators. International Journal of Electronic Business Management, 10(4), 308–321.

Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2), 103–123.

Malar, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W.D., & Nyffenegger, B. (2011). Emotional brand attachment and brand personality: The relative importance of the actual and the ideal self. Journal of Marketing, 75(4), 35–52.

McKinsey. (2020). Optimistic, digital, generous: COVID-19’s impact on Indonesian consumer sentiment. www.mckinsey.com

McKinsey. (2020). COVID-19: Briefing materials, global health and crisis response.  www.mckinsey.com

Malhotra, N. K. (2009). Marketing research: Volume 1 (4th ed.). Jakarta: PT Indeks.

McNally, D., & Speak, K. D. (2004). Be your own brand. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Nikhashemi, S. R., Valaei, N., & Tarofder, A. K. (2017). Does brand personality and perceived product quality play a major role in mobile phone consumers’ switching behaviour? Global Business Review, 18(3S), 108S–127S.

Papista, E., Dimitriadis, S. (2012). Exploring consumer-brand relationship quality and identification: Qualitative evidence from cosmetics brands. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 15, 33–56.

Peng, X., Scott, R., Prybutok, V., & Sidorova, A. (2014). Product quality vs. service quality in the mobile industry: Is there a dominant driver of customer intention to switch providers? Operations Management Research, 7(3–4), 63–76.

Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2011). The big idea: Created shared value. How to reinvent capitalism and unleash a wave of innovation and growth. Harvard Business Review, 89(1), 1–17.

Raj, M. P. M., & Roy, S. (2015). Impact of brand image on consumer decision-making: A study on high-technology products. Global Business Review, 16(3), 463–477. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150915569934

Ramaseshan, B., & Tsao, H. Y. (2007). Moderating effects of the brand concept on the relationship between brand personality and perceived quality. Journal of Brand Management, 14(6), 458–466.

Rosillo-Díaz, E., Blanco-Encomienda, F. J., & Crespo-Almendros, E. (2019). A cross-cultural analysis of perceived product quality, perceived risk and purchase intention in e-commerce platforms. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 33(1), 139–160.

Sang, H., Xue, F., & Zhao, J. (2018). What happens when satisfied customers need variety? – Effects of purchase decision involvement and product category on Chinese consumers’ brand switching behaviour. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 30(3), 148–157.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. J. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons.

Severt, K., Shin, Y. H., Chen, H. S., & DiPietro, R. B. (2020). Measuring the relationships between corporate social responsibility, perceived quality, price fairness, satisfaction, and conative loyalty in the context of local food restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2020.1842836

Sheorey, P., Joshi, G., & Kulkarni, R. (2014). Variety seeking behaviour as a measure of enduring loyalty. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 133, 255–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.192

Shirin, A., & Puth, G. (2011). Consumer satisfaction, brand trust and variety seeking as determinants of brand loyalty. African Journal of Business Management, 5(30), 11899–11915.

So, K. K. F., King, C., Sparks, B. A., & Wang, Y. (2013). The influence of customer brand identification on hotel brand evaluation and loyalty development. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 31–41.

Statista. (2020). Share of households owning a computer in Indonesia from 2015 to 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1083985/indonesia-households-owning-a-computer/.

Statista. (2020). Share of consumers who tried and switched to other brands after the large-scale social restrictions or PSBB in Indonesia in August 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1226132/indonesia-brand-switching-and-trying-by-category/.

Su, N., & Reynolds, D. (2019). Categorical differences of hotel brand personality: Identifying competition across hotel categories. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1801–1818. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2018-0354

Sung, Y., & Kim, J. (2010). Effects of brand personality on brand trust and brand effect. Psychology & Marketing, 27(7), 639–661.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1984). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (2nd ed.). Chicago: Nelson Hall.

Tekno Kompas. (2021). Daftar 5 Besar Pabrikan Laptop Global Siapa yang Teratas. https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2020/08/19/15290077/daftar-5-besar-pabrikan-laptop-global-siapa-teratas.

Tuškej, U., Golob, U., & Podnar, K. (2013). The role of consumer–brand identification in building brand relationships. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.022

Turel, O., & Serenko, A. (2006). Satisfaction with mobile services in Canada: An Empirical investigation. Telecommunication Policy, 30(5), 314–331.

Vera, Forge. (2015). Perceived brand quality as a way to superior customer perceived value crossing by moderating effects. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 24(2), 147–156.

Wu, P. H., & Lin, C. P. (2016). Learning to foresee the effects of social identity complexity and need for social approval on technology brand loyalty. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 111, 188–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.06.028

Wu, Y. L., Tao, Y. H., Li, C. P., Wang, S. Y., & Chiu, C. Y. (2014). User-switching behavior in social network sites: A model perspective with drill-down analyses. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 92–103.


Perceived Product Quality, Brand Personality, Loyalty, Brand Switching Intention, Laptop Users

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.